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Rick Gopala
Rick Gopala

Дslami Finans

Дslami Finans ===

EUCLID (Pôle Universitaire Euclide Euclid University), an international intergovernmental organization with university mandate, offers to select students from the general public an external (distance or online) degree program called EUCLID DIFE: Ph.D. in Islamic Economics and Finance. It is the only degree program in Islamic Finance organized by an international intergovernmental organization who is a partner of the Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry (now ICCIA) and of the Islamic Development Bank, both OIC institutions. Enrollment is open to Muslims and non-Muslims alike.

This Ph.D. represents at least 90 US credit hours of academic coursework beyond the Bachelor's, in compliance with international standards. It is assumed that students will transfer 35 graduate credits, and the doctoral dissertation counts for 25 credits. As a result, most incoming students are expected to obtain 35 credits during the phase of pre-dissertation coursework. The overall purpose of this Ph.D. is to provide an academically sound and institutional credible path to build on the student's background and experience in Islamic Finance. The Ph.D. is concerned with the philosophical and religious foundations of Islamic Economics and Finance, notably in contrast with the Western model. Students are expected to read a considerable amount of material to acquire a broad understanding of the state of Islamic Finance today, notably in terms of national, regional and global policies.

Islam originated in the 7th century in Mecca.[26] Muslim rule expanded outside Arabia under the Rashidun Caliphate and the subsequent Umayyad Caliphate ruled from the Iberian Peninsula to the Indus Valley. In the Islamic Golden Age, mostly during the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, much of the Muslim world experienced a scientific, economic and cultural flourishing.[27] The expansion of the Muslim world involved various states and caliphates as well as extensive trade and religious conversion as a result of Islamic missionary activities (dawah),[28] and through conquests.[29][30]

The central concept of Islam is tawḥīd (Arabic: توحيد), the oneness of God. Usually thought of as a precise monotheism, but also panentheistic in Islamic mystical teachings.[52][53][54][55] God is seen as incomparable and without partners such as in the Christian Trinity, and associating partners to God or attributing God's attributes to others is seen as idolatory, called shirk. God is seen as transcendent of creation and so is beyond comprehension. Thus, Muslims are not iconodules and do not attribute forms to God. God is instead described and referred to by several names or attributes, the most common being Ar-Rahmān (الرحمان) meaning "The Entirely Merciful," and Ar-Rahīm (الرحيم) meaning "The Especially Merciful" which are invoked at the beginning of most chapters of the Quran.[56][57]

Angels (Arabic: ملك, malak) are beings described in the Quran[63] and hadith.[64] They are described as created to worship God and also to serve other specific duties such as communicating revelations from God, recording every person's actions, and taking a person's soul at the time of death. They are described as being created variously from 'light' (nūr)[65][66][67] or 'fire' (nār).[68][69][70][71] Islamic angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles.[72][73][74][75] Common characteristics for angels are their missing needs for bodily desires, such as eating and drinking.[76] Some of them, such as Gabriel and Michael, are mentioned by name in the Quran. Angels play a significant role in the literature about the Mi'raj, where Muhammad encounters several angels during his journey through the heavens.[64] Further angels have often been featured in Islamic eschatology, theology and philosophy.[77]

Belief in the "Day of Resurrection" or Yawm al-Qiyāmah (Arabic: يوم القيامة), is also crucial for Muslims.


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